RELAZIONI CONGRESSI


 


Congresso internazionale di Medicina AntiAging di Monaco (Marzo 2015)


 Face to Face: the Muscle and Adipose Tissue,two Giants in the Battle of Diseases and Aging.

The Skeletal Muscle System and Adipose System  exert an important cross talk inside The Psyco- Neuro-Endocrine-Immune network producing a lot of cytokines and hormonal molecules.The skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the human body and contracting skeletal muscle secretes proteins which work in a hormone-like fashion, exerting specific immune-endocrine effects on other organs.Peptides that are produced, expressed and released by muscle fibers and exert autocrine, paracrine or endocrine effects should be classified as ‘myokines’ .It is well known that skeletal muscle is the target of numerous hormones, but only in recent years studies have shown a role of skeletal muscle as a secretory organ of cytokines and other peptides, denominated myokines (IL6, IL8, IL15, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and leukaemia inhibitory factor), which have autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine actions and are deeply involved in the modulation of inflammatory processes.The release of myokines by contracting muscles may also provide an explanation as to how regular muscle activity,exerting mainly an antinflammatory action, influences positively mood, performance and cognitive function and  prevent cardiovascular and metabolic diseases like diabesity and metabolic syndrome. At the same time also white adipose tissue is no longer considered an inert tissue mainly devoted to energy storage but is emerging as an active participant in regulating physiologic and pathologic processes, including immunity and inflammation. Macrophages are components of adipose tissue and actively participate in its activities. Furthermore, cross-talk between lymphocytes and adipocytes can lead to immune regulation. Adipose tissue produces and releases a variety of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, including the adipokines leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin, as well as cytokines and chemokines, such as TNF-alpha, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and others.The balance between proinflammatory and antinflammatory adipokines at one side and  between miokines and adipokines in the other side which are closed related to body composition,is critical in the regulation of health and diseases (not only those related to increased cardiometabolic risk). In this review is shown that the balance between proinflammatory and antinflammatory adipokines at one side and  between myokines and adipokines in the other side which are closed related to body composition,is critical in the regulation of health and diseases (not only those related to increased cardiometabolic risk). With aging we have  a progressive imbalancement between the visceral fat mass that increases and the muscle mass and function  that decreases.This imbalancement is caracterized by a deep dysregulation among myokines that exert mainly antinflammatory effects and proinflammatory and antiflammatory adipokines in favour of proinflammatory mediators.The loss of balace among these substances promotes a pro-inflammatory status named low grade inflammation (L.G.I.),thus favouring the vicious circle of sarcopenia, accumulation of fat - especially visceral - and development of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, dementia and depression, according to what has been called "the Diseasome of Aging Process".A safe life style choises characterized by a safe nutrition programm, regular physical activity and  also supported by multihormonal rebalancement through the improvement of  body composition and miokines/adipokines balance  is a key factor in the prevention and in the decrease of  the progression of low grade chronic inflammation,aging and aging related diseases.

 

 

 

31 Marzo 2015